Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The stem cells can develop into the red blood cells that carry oxygen through your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting.
If you have a bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or how they develop.Leukemia is a cancer in which the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. With aplastic anemia, the bone marrow doesn’t make red blood cells. Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone marrow and affect the production of blood cells. Other causes of bone marrow disorders include your genetic makeup and environmental factors.
Types of bone marrow
There are two types of bone marrow:
There are a number of blood vessels and capillaries traversing through the marrow making it a very vascular organ.
At birth and in early childhood most of the marrow is red. As a person ages more and more of it is converted to the yellow type. About half of adult bone marrow is red.
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Functions of bone marrow
Granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils) and macrophages (collectively known as myeloid cells) fight infections from bacteria, fungi, and other parasites. They also remove dead cells and remodel tissue and bones.
B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, while T-lymphocytes can directly kill or isolate invading cells.
RBC live for around 170 days and rest are shorter lived and need to be replenished continuously. An average human requires approximately one hundred billion new hematopoietic cells each day. This is performed by the Hematopoietic Stem Cells(HSCs).
What is Bone Marrow Transplant ?
A bone marrow transplant is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells. Bone marrow is the soft, fatty tissue inside your bones. Stem cells are immature cells in the bone marrow that give rise to all of your blood cells.
There are three kinds of bone marrow transplants:
Requirement of a Bone Marrow Transplant
A bone marrow transplant is required when high doses of radiation therapy or chemotherapy treatment has damaged the bone marrow stem cells. BMT may also be required when a disease has destroyed the bone marrow. A BMT is used for –
A bone marrow transplant replaces bone marrow that either is not working properly or has been destroyed (ablated) by chemotherapy or radiation.
Your doctor may recommend a bone marrow transplant if you have:
When do people need stem cell transplants?
A bone marrow transplant is required for certain reasons. A normal bone marrow transplant can be provided to those –
Bone Marrow Transplant Procedure
A bone marrow transplant depends on following conditions such as a patient’s ability to tolerate certain medications, the type of transplant and the disease that requires a transplant. The procedure includes the following –
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