Neuro and Spine Surgeries
Neuro and Spine Surgeries
Brain AneurysmWhat is Brain Aneurysm?Read more...
Brain SurgeryWhat is Brain Surgery?Read more...
Brain TumorWhat is Brain Tumor?Read more...
CraniosynostosisWhat is Craniosynostosis?Read more...
Carotid Artery DiseaseWhat is Carotid Artery Disease?Read more...
Carpel Tunnel SyndromeWhat is Carpel Tunnel Syndrome?Read more...
EpilepsyWhat is Epilepsy?Read more...
HydrocephalusWhat is Hydrocephalus?Read more...
Herniated DiscWhat is Herniated Disc?Read more...
HeadacheWhat is Headache?Read more...
Lumbar Spinal StenosisWhat is Lumbar Spinal Stenosis?Read more...
Parkinson DiseaseWhat is Parkinson Disease?Read more...
StrokeWhat is Stroke?Read more...
Spina BifidaWhat is Spina Bifida?Read more...
Spinal Cord InjuryWhat is Spinal Cord Injury?Read more...
Spinal FusionWhat is Spinal Fusion?Read more...
Spinal LaminectomyWhat is Spinal Laminectomy?Read more...
Spinal TumorWhat is Spinal Tumor?Read more...
Neurology is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the brain and nervous system.
All diseases that involve the central, peripheral or autonomic nervous systems are classed as neurological disorders. This can also include diseases that affect blood vessels and muscles as well as nerves. A physician in this specialty is a neurologist, while a neurosurgeon is specialized in surgical procedures for the treatment of neurological disorders.
Neurology is not only a brain-related specialty. As well as migraines, epilepsy and headaches, behavioral and cognitive disorders, brain cancer and traumatic brain injury, neurological disorders include progressive diseases such as Huntington’s and Lou Gehrig’s disease, and demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Diseases of the spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles, and neuromuscular junctions are also classed as neurological diseases.
Because the nervous system is so extensive, one of the key aspects of diagnosis of neurological disorders is localizing the pathology of the disorder. This means determining where in the body the symptoms originate, and whether the nervous system is involved. Neurological examinations involve cranial nerve tests and mental status tests as well as those which investigate reflexes, sensation, coordination, and strength.
There is a significant amount of overlap between neurology and psychiatry. Some mental illnesses are classified as psychiatric diseases, although they are believed to be neurological disorders. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are two such examples of diseases which are believed to be the result of neurochemical imbalance, but are usually diagnosed and treated by psychiatrists. Another instance of overlap is that many neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s cause psychiatric symptoms. It is common for people with these disorders to experience depression, mood disorder, and cognitive dysfunction, which may be treated by a psychiatrist.
I can’t imagine the direction of the wind, but I can adjust my sails to alway search my destination.
When it’s dark enough, you can see the stars.
Once you choose hope, anything’s possible. Hope never abandons you, you abandon it.
The most beautiful people we have known are those who have known defeat, known suffering, known struggle, known loss, and have found their way out of the depths. These persons have an appreciation, a sensitivity, and an understanding of life that fills them with compassion, gentleness, and a deep loving concern. Beautiful people do not just happen.
Dear GOD, if today I lose my hope please remind me that your plans are better than my Dream.....
Who is the neurologist?
A neurologist is a medical doctor or osteopath who has trained in the diagnosis and treatment of nervous system disorders, including diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and muscles.
Neurologists perform neurological examinations of the nerves of the head and neck; muscle strength and movement; balance, ambulation, and reflexes; and sensation, memory, speech, language, and other cognitive abilities. They also perform diagnostic tests such as the following -
Pediatric neurologists are doctors with specialized training in children’s neurological disorders.
Diagnostic tests and procedures are vital tools that help physicians confirm or rule out the presence of a neurological disorder or other medical condition. A century ago, the only way to make a positive diagnosis for many neurological disorders was by performing an autopsy after a patient had died. But decades of basic research into the characteristics of disease, and the development of techniques that allow scientists to see inside the living brain and monitor nervous system activity as it occurs, have given doctors powerful and accurate tools to diagnose disease and to test how well a particular therapy may be working.
What is a neurological condition?
Neurological conditions result from damage to the brain, spinal column or nerves, caused by illness or injury. Many of the precise causes of neurological conditions are not yet known. Neurological conditions affect young and old, rich and poor, men and women and people from all cultures and ethnicities.
Some neurological conditions are life-long and people can experience onset at any time in their lives. Others, such as cerebral palsy, are present from birth. Some conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, commonly appear in early childhood, some, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease affect mainly older people.
There are also conditions which have a sudden onset due to injury or illness, such as a head injury or stroke, or cancers of the brain and spine. Some neurodegenerative conditions, such as multiple sclerosis and motor neurone disease, affect people mainly in adulthood and will cause deterioration over time, affecting a person’s quality of life and their ability to live independently.
Some neurological conditions are life threatening, most of them severely affect people’s quality of life and many cause life-long disability. Caring for someone with a debilitating illness often means that carers have to give up their own employment, in addition to the person with the condition being unable to continue to be economically active. This will have a devastating impact on the family’s economic situation.
Neurological conditions are very poorly understood by the general public. Levels of awareness are low even about relatively common conditions, such as epilepsy. There are also a large number of rare conditions, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and ataxia-telangiectasia, which are largely unheard of by most health and social care professionals.
What does a neurologist treat?
Neurologists treat disorders of the nervous system, brain, spinal cord, nerves, muscles and pain. Common neurological disorders include -
When most people hear the word "neurosurgery" they automatically think of brain surgery. However, neurosurgery encompasses far more than the brain. Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of the entire nervous system, composed of the brain, spinal cord and spinal column, as well as the nerves that travel through all parts of the body (hands, legs, arms, face).
The neurological surgery treats the disorders of the nervous system of the pediatric and adult patients -
Pediatric Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of children having neurological disorders such as spasticity, intractable epilepsy, craniosynostosis, movement of disorders, hydrocephalus, spinal deformities, spina bifida, brain tumors, head injuries and cranial malformations.
The difference lies in the types of problems seen in children versus adults. The vast majority of problems treated by adult neurosurgeons are problems related to the spine (herniated disk and spinal instability, mainly). Conversely, the problem most often seen in children are those related to hydrocephalus ("water on the brain"). Having said that, there are many problems that children and adults have in common, including trauma, brain and spinal injuries, as also tumors of the brain and spine.
Endovascular surgery is an innovative, less invasive procedure used to treat problems affecting the blood vessels, such as an aneurysm, which is a swelling or "ballooning" of the blood vessel. The surgery involves making a small incision near each hip to access the blood vessels. An endovascular graft, which is a special fabric tube device framed with stainless steel self-expanding stents, is inserted through the arteries in a catheter, a long, narrow flexible tube, and positioned inside the aorta. Once in place, the graft expands and seals off the aneurysm, preventing blood from flowing into the aneurysm. The graft remains in the aorta permanently. Endovascular surgery in an alternative to open surgery that offers numerous benefits such as less discomfort, quick recovery, less stress on the heart, smaller incisions, regional or local anesthesia and less risks for patients having other medical conditions.
Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are defects of the circulatory system that are generally believed to arise during embryonic or fetal development or soon after birth. Arteriovenous malformation or AVM is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system. The circulatory system defects are termed as Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). These AVMs develops after birth or during fetal or embryonic development. AVMs are made up of snarled tangles of veins and arteries. The oxygen rich blood is carried by arteries from the heart to the cells of the body and oxygen less blood is carried by veins to the heart and lungs. AVMs obstruct the vital cyclical process of arteries and veins.
Many neurological symptoms are caused by AVMs that differ from person to person. Symptoms of AVM vary according to the location of the arteriovenous malformation. The presence of AVMs can be diagnosed when there is a specific auditory sign known as bruit (meaning noise). This bruit symptom is extremely severe and the sound it makes can be like a torrent of water speeding out from a narrow pipe. This bruit can result in psychological distress and can also disturb sleep. You may not know you have a brain AVM until you experience symptoms, such as headaches or a seizure. In serious cases, the blood vessels rupture, causing bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). Once diagnosed, a brain AVM can often be treated successfully.
The nervous system disorder affecting the movement of a person is known as Parkinson’s disease. This disease develops slowly and sometimes there is only a tremor in one hand. Tremors are regarded as a significant symptom of this disease and can result in slowing or stiffness of movement. A person may not be able to swing their arm while walking at the initial stages. This progressive disease can lead to slurred speech also. Its symptoms include -
Stereotactic neurosurgery is a minimally invasive procedure that include therapeutic and diagnostic procedure. It is the technique for locating targets of surgical interest within the brain relative to an external frame of reference. Traditionally, that has meant temporarily attaching a mechanical frame to the patient’s skull or scalp. Recent techniques are moving toward ways of reducing the trauma to the patient while retaining the information provided by the frame. Historically, the predominant use of the frames was for placement of electrodes. The advent of computed tomography led to a rebirth of stereotaxy for biopsy and as a guide for resection. Recent advances in computing are supplementing these techniques to allow improved surgical planning and intraoperative information. Finally, highly directed radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery is discussed.
Stereotactic neurosurgery is concerned with epilepsy, several chronic pain syndromes, movement disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The mapping of the brain is done in this procedure through 3 dimensional coordinate system. 3D computer workstations, CT scans, neurosurgeons and MRI are used for targeting specific area of the brain in 3D coordinate system.
Deep Brain Stimulation
The neurological treatment where mild electrical signals are stimulated in different parts of the brain is termed as deep brain stimulation. The electrical impulses of the brain are reorganized by the signals that results in improved symptoms in different situations affecting the brain. The stimulation given depends upon the condition of a patient and can be given in either one or both sides of the brain. During the procedure, electrodes are connected by wire to an impulse generator device (a type of pacemaker device). When the device gets activated, it sends electrical pulses to the targeted brain areas. The impulses are then blocked causing tremors.
Our brain is the most complex organ in your body. It consists of more than 100 billion specialized nerve cells called neurons and it acts as a command centre for everything you do, think, sense and say. These neurons depend on the blood vessels in your brain for oxygen and nutrients. Neurons cannot duplicate or repair themselves.
Different parts of the brain control different functions. When someone has a stroke, the functions that are affected depend upon which area of the brain was damaged and how much damage occurred. Learning what the different parts of the brain do can help you understand why the effects of stroke can be so different among different people.
A stroke is a sudden loss of brain function. It is caused by the interruption of flow of blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of blood vessels in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). The interruption of blood flow or the rupture of blood vessels causes brain cells (neurons) in the affected area to die. The effects of a stroke depend on where the brain was injured, as well as how much damage occurred. A stroke can impact any number of areas including your ability to move, see, remember, speak, reason and read and write. The brain tissue is deprived of food and oxygen and brain cells starts to die. An immediate treatment is required in this condition. The strokes can be both prevented and treated. The prominent factors that can cause the condition of stroke are high cholesterol, high blood pressure and smoking. Symptoms of stroke include weakness, vision problems, problem in talking or walking, high blood pressure, slurred speech, confusion, a sudden severe headache and dizziness.
What are the types of stroke?
"Happiness is not something ready made. It comes from your own actions".
"The purpose of our lives is to be happy" - Dalai Lama