Neuro and Spine Surgeries
Brain AneurysmWhat is Brain Aneurysm?Read more...
Brain SurgeryWhat is Brain Surgery?Read more...
Brain TumorWhat is Brain Tumor?Read more...
CraniosynostosisWhat is Craniosynostosis?Read more...
Carotid Artery DiseaseWhat is Carotid Artery Disease?Read more...
Carpel Tunnel SyndromeWhat is Carpel Tunnel Syndrome?Read more...
EpilepsyWhat is Epilepsy?Read more...
HydrocephalusWhat is Hydrocephalus?Read more...
Herniated DiscWhat is Herniated Disc?Read more...
HeadacheWhat is Headache?Read more...
Lumbar Spinal StenosisWhat is Lumbar Spinal Stenosis?Read more...
Parkinson DiseaseWhat is Parkinson Disease?Read more...
StrokeWhat is Stroke?Read more...
Spina BifidaWhat is Spina Bifida?Read more...
Spinal Cord InjuryWhat is Spinal Cord Injury?Read more...
Spinal FusionWhat is Spinal Fusion?Read more...
Spinal LaminectomyWhat is Spinal Laminectomy?Read more...
Spinal TumorWhat is Spinal Tumor?Read more...
What is Craniosynostosis?
Craniosynostosis is a rare problem with the skull that causes a baby to be born with, or develop, an abnormally shaped head. It happens as a result of one or more of the infant’s cranial sutures (cracks in the skull) fusing too early. Normally an infant’s skull is made up seven bones, with gaps (cranial sutures) between them that do not fuse until the child is approximately two years old, this allows their brain to grow and develop. Craniosynostosis can be nonsyndromic or syndromic. Children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis have no other birth defects and children with syndromic craniosynostosis are born with craniosynostosis being one of a number of defects.
There are four major types of craniosynostosis, a child with the condition can have just one or a combination of them.
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Types of Craniosynostosis?
These four types are -
Sagittal synostosis - is when the head grows long but its width is restricted due to the sagittal suture (top of the head) fusing too early. It is the most widespread type of craniosynostosis and mostly occurs in boys.
Coronal craniosynostosis - is due to early fusion of one or both of the sutures connecting the top of the head to the ears (coronal sutures). It results in the baby having a flat forehead and possibly a higher eye socket on the affected side. If both sutures fuse, both sides of the face are affected, this is known as Biconal synostosis. This kind of craniosynostosis occurs mostly in girls and is the second most common of the types.
Metopic synostosis - is a much rarer form of craniosynostosis. This time the suture that fuses is located between the sagittal suture and the nose. Babies with this form develop a triangular scalp.
Lambdoid synostosis - is when the suture that runs across the back of the head (lamdoid suture) fuses causing flatness in this area. Of all forms of craniosynostosis, this is the most rare.
Symptoms of Craniosynostosis
Causes of Non-Syndromic Craniosynostosis
Non-syndromic craniosynostosis has no known cause but is associated with few theories. The presence of a cell defect in the sutures can cause early fusing. According to second theory, when a child in the womb assumes an irregular position if the pressure is placed on the head of the baby. Due to this, bone plates can be pushed together may cause the sutures to fuse.
Causes of Syndromic Craniosynostosis
Although it is rarer, more is known about the causes of syndromic craniosynostosis. There are many syndromes that can cause this form of craniosynostosis, including -
Most cases of syndromic craniosynostosis are caused by one of four genetic mutations. A genetic mutation occurs when instructions carried in certain genes (a unit of genetic material) become scrambled. This means some of the body's processes do not work in the normal way.
Diagnosis of Craniosynostosis
The following tests may be done -
Treatment of Craniosynostosis
The treatment depends upon following conditions -
Craniosynostosis is treated by surgery that opens the fused sutures creating space for brain growth. A variety of surgical procedures may be used. The surgeon will discuss the options available for your child and choose the most appropriate procedure depending on the sutures involved and your child’s age when he or she is diagnosed. Often a neurosurgeon and a plastic surgeon work together for more complex types of craniosynostosis.
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